Created by Dr. Ronald Takata
Hawai'i Space Grant Consortium Associate Director, Honolulu Community College,
Future Flight Hawai'i instructor.
Coral sand, desert (silica) sand, black lava sand, limestone, marble, chalk, glass beads, lemon juice, vinegar.
Rinse the labtop into a waste container with a stream of water. Filter the particles out using a piece of filter paper in a funnel. The filtrate may be poured down the drain.
* Red ocean sand contains high iron content which oxidizes to iron oxide, which is red. Black lava sand is black due to the presence of manganese compounds, which are black. White coral/ocean sand comes from coral, seashells, calcarious algae, which produce structures made of calcium carbonate, a white compound. Desert (quartz) sand is colorless or pastel transparent/translucent solid, which appears white as its surface is abraded.
* Carbon dioxide, CO2
* The coral/ocean sand produces bubbles with vinegar because coral/ocean sand is composed of calcium carbonate, which decomposes, releasing carbon dioxide upon contact with any acid. Lava sand and desert (quartz) sand, which are primarily silicates, are stable in acid.
* Colorado and Arizona, as well as most of the middle section of North America, was once covered by an ocean that stretched from the Arctic Ocean to the Caribbean Sea. Coraline sand was deposited at the bottom of this body of water, and produced sandstone deposits. Over geologic time the land mass rose and the ocean receded producing the current North American continent. Due to time, heat, and pressure, the sandstone was transformed into limestone, then into marble. The marble deposits in the Rocky Mountains and the omnipresent limestone deposits (Grand Canyon, Bryce Canyon), all composed of calcium carbonate, were once marine shells and corals. Incidentally this oceanic history of this region explains why petroleum deposits, the product of marine life deposits, have been found there.
* The white sand from Hawaii's beaches originated from marine shells and corals.
* The black and green sands came from lava and are terragenic. The beige, silica sand is from geologically formed igneous rocks.
* Black sand particles which are attracted to the magnet are magnetite, an iron oxide, which has magnetic properties.
Communications: Hawaii Space Grant Office
This activity is featured in Future Flight Hawaii, a K-12 Education Project of Hawaii Space Grant Consortium.
FEB 27 2001 (updated April 9 2002)